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Turkish noun appendages...

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The 'Modern' LPT Case Name

What does it refer to?

How is it recognized in English?

How is it recognized in Turkish?

Special Notes

'Medieval' Grammatical Case Name

The Dictionary Form

The noun in its pure form. It's the 'no case' case.

It's the noun on its own as you'd find it in a dictionary.

Example –
1) harpsichord
2) muscle
3) weep(ing), cry(ing)
[verbal noun]

It's the noun on its own -- exactly as you'd find it in a dictionary.

Example –
1) klavsen
2) adale
3) aglama
[verbal noun]

 

The Absolute Form or Case

The Direct Object Case

The direct object of a verb or the object of certain prepositions.

It's a noun found in the predicate of the sentence.

Example –
1) I played the harpsichord.
2) She pulled the muscle.
3) He likes repairing antiques.
4) He loves Turkish bread.

By the presence of one of the following suffixes:
-i/ü/I/u [or by -yi/yü/yI/yu after a vowel].

Example –
1) Klavseni ηaldIm.
2) Adaleyi incitti.
3) Antika onarmayI sever.
4) Tόrk ekmegi sever.

Before adding this suffix to nouns ending in k change the k to g (yumusak-g).

Accusative or Definite Object or Direct Object Case

The Possessive Case

Denotes possession, measurement, or source.

Expressed in English by a prepositional phrase beginning with 'of'.

Example –
1) ...of the harpsichord.
2) ...of the muscle
3) ...of the repairing
4) ...of the bread

By the presence of one of the following suffixes:
-in/ün/In/un
[or by
-nin/nün/nIn/nun after a vowel].

Example –
1) ...klavsenin
2) ...adalenin

3) ...
onarmanIn
4) ...
ekmegin

Before adding this suffix to nouns ending in k change the k to g (yumusak-g)

Genitive case

The To/For Case

Denotes the indirect object of a verb and the object of any of certain verbs and prepositions.

Expressed by a prepositional phrase with 'to/for'.

Example –
1) ...for the harpsichord
2) ...to the muscle
3) ...for the repairing
4) ...for the bread

By the presence of one of the following suffixes:
-e/a [or by -ye/ya after a vowel].

Example –
1) ...klavsene
2) ...adaleye
3) ...onarmaya
4) ...ekmege

Before adding this suffix to nouns ending in k change the k to g (yumusak-g)

Dative case

The Place Case

Denotes the case 'where something is/has been/will be' or 'where something occurs/has occurred/will occur'.

Expressed by a prepositional phrase with 'in, on, at'.

Example –
1) ...on the harpsichord.
2) ...on the car.
3) ...in the book
4) ...in the jeep

By the presence of one of the following suffixes:
-de/da [or by -te/ta after ç, f, h, k, p, s, s, or t].

Example –
1) ...klavsende
2) ...arabada
3) ...kitapta
4) ...cipte

 

Locative Case

The From/Than Case

Denotes separation, direction away from, and sometimes manner or agency.

Expressed by a prepositional phrase with 'from, out of, through, than'.

Example –
1) ...from the harpsichord.
2) ...out of the car
3) ...than the book
4) ...from the jeep

By the presence of one of the following suffixes:
-den/dan [or by -ten/tan after ç, f, h, k, p, s, s, or t].

Example –
1) ...klavsen
den
2) ...arabadan
3) ...kitaptan
4) ...cipten

 

Ablative Case

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