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Turkish Buffer Letters

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Buffer letters -- are used within Turkish words for at least three reasons:

a) to separate suffixes
b) to separate consecutive vowels
c) for general language harmonics

And sometimes, all these reasons ‘collide’ in the same buffer letter !!
Note: Buffer letters are only necessary if
the preceding character in the word is a Turkish vowel:

a, e, I, i, o, ö, u, ü.

Buffer letter

Used in what situation?

Turkish Example



For indirect 'possession' -- involving pronouns.


his/her/its hopeless love


With compound nouns.

bira fabrikasI

beer factory


For direct possession -- pronouns not involved.


(i.e., something belonging to Ayse),
of the car...


With a word that already has an indirect-possession ending.

ArabasInI kullanIn.

Drive his/her car.
(A command...)


With the pronouns bu, su, o, biri.

Onu yemeyecegim.

I won’t eat that.


With a –ki ending.

Seninkini yaptIm.

I did yours.


all other situations

RakIyI içtik.

We drank the rakI.

Based on ideas found in 'Turkish Grammer' and 'Teach Yourself Turkish' by G.L. Lewis
and 'Teach Yourself Turkish' by Asuman and David Pollard...

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